Краткое описание по статье Synergetics: Is there really a law explaining everything in the world
Название: Synergetics: Is there really a law explaining everything in the world . Краткое описание: Do not confuse this discipline with pseudoscientific theory. =" alt="Synergetics: is there really a . Дата публикации: 11.03.2022 . Автор: Алишер Валеев .
Для чего создан сайт Novosti-Nedeli.ru
Данный сайт посвящен новостям мира и мира технологий . Также тут вы найдете руководства по различным девайсам.
Сколько лет сайту?
Возраст составляет 3 года
Do not confuse this discipline with pseudoscientific theory. =» alt=»Synergetics: is there really a law that explains everything in the world»» src=»»https://cdn.lifehacker.ru/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/F8AEA8FB-4766-42BE-BF4B- DE490B69EB86_1617563101-288×144.jpeg»>
- 1 What is synergetics
- 2 What is pseudo-synergetics
- 3 How to distinguish between synergetics and pseudo-synergetics
What is synergetics
Synergetics is an interdisciplinary field of science that explores some processes of self-organization in nature. The name comes from the ancient Greek words συν and ἔργον — «plus» and «business», which can be translated as «joint activity, assistance».
Synergy studiesGubin V. B. On the methodology of pseudoscience. M. 2004 macroscopic ordered systems, which differ sharply from ordinary thermodynamic (chaotic) systems in that Boldachev A. V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007 elements of self-organization: structures, vortices, waves or periodic oscillations.
Any chemical reactions in which molecules are formed, the union of elementary particles into atoms, gas turbulences — all this is possible to name examples of synergistic processes. The most revealing of them is the formation («growth») of crystals.
The paths of synergetic processes are very difficult to predict. Under the same conditions, they can lead to different results, so are described Boldachev A.V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007 non-linear equations. The moments when there is a «choice» of a further trajectory are called bifurcation points.
is considered one of the main achievements of synergeticsBoldachev A. V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007 discovery of dissipative structures self-organizing at the macroscopic level. For this, the Belgian physicist and chemist Ilya Prigozhin received The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977. Nobel Prize The Nobel Prize in Chemistry. An example of dissipative structures are the so-called Benard vortices. They can be observed when, when heated, thin layers of liquid begin to circulate up and down, forming peculiar cells of a regular hexagonal shape.
For the first time, the term in its current sense wasKnyazeva E. N. Synergetics. Encyclopedia of Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. M. 2009 was introduced in 1969 by the German theoretical physicist Hermann Haken.
What is pseudo-synergetics
ExistsBoldachev A. V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007a number of concepts close to synergetics: nonlinear dynamics, the theory of complex adaptive systems, the theory of deterministic chaos, or fractal geometry, the theory of autopoiesis, the theory of self-organized criticality, the theory of non-stationary structures in blow-up regimes.
In some interpretations, synergetics generalizesKnyazeva E. N. Synergetics. Encyclopedia of Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. M. 2009 all these directions and applies to any systems: biological, ecological, economic, social, psychological and others.
In this sense, it can be considered the modern stage in the development of cybernetics and systems analysis and is regarded as a kind of universal theory of global evolution. That is, with its help, they try to describe the entire history of the Universe from the origin to the appearance of people as a single successive process.
The followers of this understanding of synergetics consider it possible to identify a single mechanism according to which any Gubin V. B. On the methodology of pseudoscience. M. 2004innovations: from physical and chemical to sociological and linguistic, from the Big Bang to socio-economic changes. This can be described as a world-wide process when there is a choicePorus V N. Synergetic epistemology. Encyclopedia of Epistemology and Philosophy of Science. M. 2009 of several options, not an endless chaotic state transition.
The beginning of this approach putFuller B. R., Applewhite E. J. Synergetics. V. 1–2. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc. 1975, 1979 American author and theorist Buckminster Fuller, and he used the word «synergy» before Herman Haken. Fuller justified his ideas in geometric, mathematical, physical, biological and social terms. He called for the study of synergetics, because he considered it a theory that could explain everything in the world and save the world from disaster.
In Russia, the main popularizer of these ideas wasS. P. Kurdyumov's website mathematician Sergei Kurdyumov, author of the term «human-dimensional systems».
However, this approach criticizeBoldachev A. V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007 for transferring the laws and terms of synergetics to phenomena unusual for it, such as the human psyche, society or civilization. This philosophical-expansive stretching of the boundaries of the discipline, according to critics, is unscientific, since the theory is freely adjusted to fit the facts.
This desire to create a universal theory out of synergetics has been compared to how the successes of classical mechanics in the past led to the desire to calculate and predict everything and everything (determinism). This has already happened with the ideas of Darwin, and with the theory of relativity, and with quantum mechanics and cybernetics.
Opponents of the expanded use of synergetics considerclass="ref__opener"> span>Boldachev A. V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007that it can adequately describe only certain physical, chemical, astronomical, and biological processes. Critics also complain that often synergetics and its terminology are usedGubin V. B On the methodology of pseudoscience. M. 2004 to give weight to pseudoscientific research. For example, «research» about bioenergy or some other kind of «subtle energy».
Therefore, scientists talk about the emergence and popularization of pseudo-synergetics. It can be labeled as a speculative pseudoscientific directionBoldachev A.V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007, which juggles terms and spreads empty rhetoric about «self-organizing systems». Pseudo-synergetics like to declare the discovery of some “new knowledge”, but in fact there is nothing like this behind their words. At the same time, almost no one criticizes them, since understandsGubin V. B. On the methodology of pseudoscience. M. 2004 of real synergy.
How to distinguish between synergetics and pseudo-synergetics
Here are a few criteria that will help you do this.
Substantiating the ways of «universal evolution» using synergetics
Often in pseudo-synergistic publications canBoldachev A.V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007 see phrases like: «synergetics is a theory of self-organization and evolution of complex systems» or «synergetics justifies the alternative paths of evolution» .
However, in reality, this science studies much more “simple” processes, such as combustion, heat conduction and chemical reactions, which are quite well integrated into the existing scientific picture of the world. More or less fits into the «universal evolution» except perhaps the example of the formation of crystals, and then only with large assumptions.
It should be understood that synergetics (like any science) not allowedBoldachev A. V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007 to use as a general theory of an evolving system. This discipline can only describe its individual processes.
«Synergistic approach» and incorrect analogies
Another important marker of pseudo-synergetics is phrasesin the spirit: “it follows from synergetics…”, “according to the synergetic paradigm…”, “based on the laws of synergetics…”. But they are not directly related to science, despite the similarity, for example, with phrases such as «according to the second law of thermodynamics …» or «based on the Maxwell equation …».
Most likely, you will find similar phrases in philosophical and generalizing publications using comparisons by analogy — such a kind of «logical leap». They can substantiate «from the point of view of synergetics» economic processes. Or matchBudanov VG Synergetic algebra of harmony. synergetic paradigm. Variety of searches and approaches. M. 2000 the frequency of revolutions of planets with musical intervals, and then with world religions and colors, for example green.
The founder of synergetics, Herman Haken, eventually came to a similar view of synergetics. In bookHaken G. Secrets of nature. Synergetics: the doctrine of interaction. M. — Izhevsk. 2003 «Secrets of nature. Synergetics: the doctrine of interaction” he discusses, for example, whether conflicts are inevitable and whether revolutions are predictable.
In a scientific publication, the synergetic process willBoldachev A.V. Innovations. Judgments in line with the evolutionary paradigm. SPb. 2007 be described through an equation that can be confirmed or refuted experimentally. For evolution, no one, of course, will compose such an equation (because it is hardly possible). Needless to say, the formulas describing physical and chemical processes cannot be shifted to biological or social processes.
Of course, both a thin layer of liquid heated by a laboratory burner and the economic activity of an enterprise have several possible developments. But it is at least incorrect to correlate them with each other.
Therefore, the appeal to the «synergetic approach» in the social sciences and humanities is unsubstantiatedGubin V. B. Pseudo-synergetics is the latest pseudoscience. In Defense of Science #1and unscientific, since it is formal, superficial and based on a misunderstanding of the principles of synergetics. In particular, thermodynamics, linear and adaptive models.
Esoterism, an abundance of incomprehensible terms and a free attitude to scientific methodology
Under the guise of synergetics in «scientific» journals canGubin V. B. On the methodology of pseudoscience. M. 2004published absolutely esoteric articles. For example, about “soliton-background excitations of fractal layers of a crystal of primary matter, called physical vacuum”, deforming and resonating with living cells. Or about «ψ-fields of powers of itself». Sometimes such works talk about cosmic-esoteric concepts with a serious face, as in the exampleBudanov VG Synergetic algebra of harmony. synergetic paradigm. Variety of searches and approaches. M. 2000 from astrology about the connection of planets with musical intervals.
Naturally, synergetics is needed here for the solidity and substantiation of unproven theories and statements. Such “researchers” hide the inconsistency of their thoughts behind complex and obscure terminology, which ultimately only confirms the unfoundedness of pseudo-synergetics. After all, as you know, a real scientist should be able to explain his research in simple language.
Pseudo-synergetics is also often used to announce the beginning of a “new turn” in science, especially Leaning on the «post-non-classical» synergetics. In such «research» it allegedly sheds light on the limitations of the old approaches.
However, upon closer examination, such statements break downGubin V. B. Pseudo-synergetics is the latest pseudoscience. In Defense of Science #1 to smithereens. For example, the joint simultaneous action of several factors was taken into account in geology and medicine long before synergetics. The linearity of processes has also long been questioned by historians and economists.
Synergetics is increasingly turning into a beautiful word. It is used by those who want to pass for a progressive person. But in fact, this is a rather narrow and complex discipline, which is of little use in everyday life. Therefore, it is worth thinking carefully before talking about «synergistic interaction» or using other similar constructs.